Types of Water Softeners

This expert, unbiased water softeners report will help you choose the right size water softener, understand salt-free and dual-tank softeners, and more

Hard water is a familiar reality for millions of Indians.  According to the INDIA Geological Survey, 85 percent of Indians homes have problems with hard water.

Solving Hard Water Problems

Hard water comes from aquifers and other underground sources that collect dissolved minerals from rock—particularly calcium, magnesium carbonate, and manganese. These minerals give water undesirable characteristics that collectively are dubbed “hardness.” The severity of hardness is measured by grains (of mineral) per gallon (GPG) or, in some cases, by parts per million of mineral (PPM). One GPG equals 17.1 PPM.

Technically, any water that contains more than 1 GPG of dissolved hardness minerals is considered hard, but, realistically, water with up to 3.5 GPG is relatively soft. Water with more than 10.5 GPG is very hard. Between these extremes is typical, moderately hard water.

You can You can by a water test kit online

Hard water is less an issue of health than of potential expense. Many of the problems created by hard water are hidden until some type of malfunction occurs in your home’s plumbing system or in a water-using appliance. When heated, dissolved hard-water minerals recrystallize and form scale that eventually clogs plumbing, reducing water flow. Scale and lime deposits also take their toll on water-heating appliances such as dishwashers and coffee makers, increasing the need for repairs.

Worse yet, scale cakes onto interior surfaces of water heaters, making them more likely to fail. According to a study commissioned by the Water Quality Research Council at  Delhi  University, water heaters operate 22 percent to 30 percent less efficiently when plagued with hard-water scale.

Hard-water problems are more obvious as a nuisance when you bathe and cook, do laundry and clean house. Calcium and magnesium react with many soaps, shampoos, cleansers, and detergents, diminishing their lathering and cleaning capability so you have to use more and rinse longer. They also form a scum on tile and what appears as bathtub ring that is difficult to rinse away. In the kitchen, this “soap curd” translates into spotted dishes and scale on cookware. Additionally, certain hard-water minerals, such as iron and manganese, can give water an undesirable appearance, odor, or taste.

Hard water does enter the health arena in one area: People who have hard water are more prone to rashes and skin problems because it changes the skin’s pH so that soap remains on the skin, clogging pores.

Types of Water Softeners

By far the most popular and commonly used type of whole-house water softener is an ion-exchange or “cation exchange” unit, but a couple of other technologies are also available. It’s important to understand the differences.

This type of water softener cycles household water through two tanks: one with special resin beads and the other filled with brine. It works on the principle of ion exchange, softening hard water by substituting sodium (salt) for hard minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and iron. For More De-tile: 044-65656547 , +91 9381816481

SS Commercial Domestic Water Softener & Purifier

COMMERCIAL AND DOMESTIC WATER  SOFTENER & PURIFIERSS Commercial Domestic Water Softener & Purifier

The water softener system effectively removes the hardness by applying kinetic energy in the water and delivers an uninterrupted supply of soft water during whole day using their exceptional tank design. Our range of water softener units can also be used for removing soluble iron. For industrial applications, We have water softeners for heat exchanger or boiler size or for any washing and cooling capacity.

Applications AND Advantages

Steam Boiler- The soft water removes the risk of failure of boiler tube which arises due to blockage. Water softeners by Bionics maintain high efficiency of the boiler by eliminating the hardness, avoiding the scale build-up on surface of heat transfer. Besides, it also lowers the consumption of energy which is used in the process of heat transfer.

Cooling Tower- In the absence of scale, the energy efficiency of cooling tower system gets accelerated while the cleaning cost is diminished

Washing – The soft water reduces extra use of detergent and soap. It makes washing cozy as it doesn’t leave any lime scale marks.

Manufacturing- Water is used for washing cooling, coating, spraying, plating, and rinsing in manufacturing units. The softener releases soft water to make all these work perfectly.

Facilities Management- Soft water decreases the shower head scaling while also safeguards against disease – Legionnaires’. This disease has no chance of occurring on pipe surfaces that are lime-scale free.

For More Details:-044-65656547, +91 9381816481

Home Water Softener Systems & Softening Plants

We are listed amongst the renowned organizations in this domain, engaged in offering a superior quality range of Water Softener Plant that is broadly demanded in the industrial sector for providing excellent quality water. Our assorted range of plant is widely used in houses, hospitals, schools, offices in order to softening the water. This Water Softener Plant is precisely manufactured under the skilled professionals’ guidance using high grade raw material and advanced technology.

Features:

  • High efficiency
  • Optimum cleaning
  • Non-corrosive
  • Longer service life

Specifications: 

Agaram Aqua Tech Industrial and Domestic   Water Softener are available in a wide range with maximum flow rate from 500 to 60000 LPH.  In this process Hard Water is converted to Soft Water. The Maximum Permissible limit of Hardness in Water is 200 ppm (mg/lit). About 62% of India Suffer from more than 200 ppm of hardness in water.  But what makes water hard?   Hard water contains excessive Calcium and Magnesium salt which are harmful.

Applications:

  • Home and apartments
  • Process water for manufacturing plants
  • Boiler feed water and cooling water make-up
  • Beverage and food processing industry
  • Hospital, hotel, institute, laundries and more

Hard Water Problems

  • Personal
  • Skin

Hard water makes it more difficult for substances to dissolve in it efficiently, such as soap. When you lather (which you may also realize is difficult to do) and then rinse off, you may not be removing all the soap from your skin.

This is through no fault of your own, but rather the inability of your water to wash all the soap from your skin. Soap that remains on the skin aids in drying it out, leaving you with flaky, itchy skin. Remaining soap can also aid in the clogging of pores, giving you dry skin and a few extra skin irritations Using Soft water means there are fewer deposits in the water, giving your soap better lathering power and making it much easier to wash off, freeing your skin of excess soap after you towel off and giving you a better chance at softer, more moisturized skin Hair.

Our hair, scalp and skin have an electrical charge and that charge is negative. Minerals and oxidizers are charged positive. When a positively charged mineral comes in contact with our hair, scalp, or skin, it attaches on like a magnet. Hard water mainly contains

Calcium & Magnesium which affects your hair in following ways

  • Calcium builds up on the scalp causing flaking of the scalp, giving the appearance of dandruff.
  • Calcium can choke the hair at the mouth of the follicle causing the hair to break off, then coating the scalp, blocking further new hair growth.
  • Magnesium causes hair to feel dry & causes hair to appear weighted down.
  • Magnesium can inhibit the proper processing of perms, colour and relaxers.

This can cause many problems for your hair, scalp and skin like

  • Hair feels dry
  • Hair is resistant to colour or perming
  • Dandruff or eczema of the scalp
  • Dry, flaky skin
  • Thinning hair
  • Colours fading too quickly
  • Perms appearing to fall out
  • Discoloration or darkening of hair
  • Hair lacks body and shine

Shaving

Shaving is also more difficult in hard water. Living in a hard water area can make this perfect shave tricky and can cause irritating razor drag leading to an uncomfortable shave and even nicks and cuts. This is because the minerals in hard water actually prevent soaps and shaving products forming a good lather.

  • Domestic Laundry
  • Hard Water Laundry Symptoms
  • Dishwashers
  • Water Boiler Systems and Piping
  • Solar Heating Systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard Water vs Soft Water – Difference and Comparison

Every household and every factory uses water, and none of it is pure. One class of impurity that is of special interest is “hardness”. This refers to the presence of dissolved ions, mainly of calcium Ca2+ and magnesium Mg2+ which are acquired through contact with rocks and sediments in the environment. The positive electrical charges of these ions are balanced by the presence of anions (negative ions), of which bicarbonate HCO3– and carbonate CO32– are most important. These ions have their origins in limestone sediments and also from carbon dioxide which is present in all waters exposed to the atmosphere and especially in groundwater s.

Origin of water “hardness”

Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid (1) which at ordinary environmental pH exists mostly as bicarbonate ion (2). Microscopic marine organisms take this up as carbonate (4) to form calcite skeletons which, over millions of years, have built up extensive limestone deposits. Groundwaters, made slightly acidic by CO2 (both that absorbed from the air and from the respiration of soil bacteria) dissolve the limestone (3), thereby acquiring calcium and bicarbonate ions and becoming “hard”. If the HCO3– concentration is sufficiently great, the combination of processes (2) and (4)causes calcium carbonate (“lime scale”) to precipitate out on surfaces such as the insides of pipes. (Calcium bicarbonate itself does not form a solid, but always precipitates as CaCO3.)

Carbonate

Carbonate

These “hardness ions” cause two major kinds of problems. First, the metal cations react with soaps, causing them to form an unsightly precipitate— the familiar “bathtub ring”.

Hardness-minerals-precipitate-out-of-the-water-and-form-energy-robbing-scale. bathtub

Hardness-minerals-precipitate-out-of-the-water-and-form-energy-robbing-scale.bathtub

More seriously, the calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to precipitate out as adherent solids on the surfaces of pipes and especially on the hot heat exchanger surfaces of boilers. The resulting scale buildup can impede water flow in pipes. In boilers, the deposits act as thermal insulation that impedes the flow of heat into the water; this not only reduces heating efficiency, but allows the metal to overheat, which in pressurized systems can lead to catastrophic failure.

Types of water hardness

Temporary hardness

This refers to hardness whose effects can be removed by boiling the water in an open container. Such waters have usually percolated though limestone formations and contain bicarbonate HCO3– along with small amounts of carbonate CO32– as the principal negative ions. Boiling the water promotes the reaction

2 HCO3– → CO32– + CO2

by driving off the carbon dioxide gas. The CO32– reacts with Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions, to form insoluble calcium and magnesium carbonates which precipitate out. By tying up the metal ions in this way, the amounts available to form soap scum are greatly reduced.

Permanent hardness

Waters than contain other anions such as chloride or sulfate cannot be remediated by boiling, and are said to be “permanently” hard. The only practical treatment is to remove all the ions, normally by the method described below.

water _softener_cut

For more information about water softening products, contact the Information Desk, Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5 pm

For More Details: – 044-65656547, +91 9381816481

High Quality Water Softener for Industrial Applications

How does a Water Softener work?

Softeners have been used since the early 1900‘s to prevent scale in boilers, so the technology is well understood and their performance is predictable and reliable.

They involve a process called ion exchange which uses an ion exchange resin. The resin comprises tiny polymeric beads which are specially formulated so that they can be charged with certain ions. Calcium and magnesium, the causes of scale and scum from hard water, are referred to as ions, and as water passes through the resin the calcium and magnesium ions swap places with the sodium ions on the resin. Sodium salts, unlike calcium and magnesium, are highly soluble so sodium does not cause scale or scum. When all the sodium ions have been exchanged for calcium or magnesium, the resin must be regenerated by recharging it with sodium ions. This is done by flushing the resin with salt solution (brine).

Softeners are supplied in different shapes and sizes. All have a tank to hold the resin through which the water is passed to soften it, all have a tank to store and dissolve the salt for the regenerating brine and all softeners regenerate automatically. There are various ways in which softeners determine when to regenerate – some are fitted with a timer and some regenerate after a pre-set volume of water has been treated.

Ion exchange involves the use of a resin bed. Ion exchange resin is a very small synthetic bead-like material that looks a little bit like brown sugar. The beads are very small, about the size of a pin head.

The process is called Ion exchange because the ions calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are exchanged for small amounts of sodium (Na).

Water softeners use ion exchange (see above) and although they all differ in design they do share the following characteristics.

Set-up
In this diagram note the brine tank containing salt, the pressure vessel containing resin and the control valve.
You will also see the inlet, outlet and drain. The overflow is not shown.

how-water-softeners-work-01

how-water-softeners-work-1

Service cycle (when it’s giving you softened water)
During the service cycle, hard water enters the control valve where it is sent down through the resin bed where the hardness minerals are removed.
The soft water then travels up through a tube and out to feed the house.

how-water-softeners-work-02

how-water-softeners-work-02

Regeneration cycle (when it’s cleaning itself)
The regeneration cycle will be initiated by the control valve. Salty water (brine) is sucked in by the control valve and up through the resin where it collects the hardness minerals and then flushes them out down the drain.

how-water-softeners-work-03

how-water-softeners-work-03

For more information about water softening products, contact the Information Desk, Monday through Friday, 8 am to 5 pm

For More Details: 044-65656547, +91 9381816481